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Most women deliver in their homes as medical centers are not available. ‘Our babies matter:’ Efforts aim to lower infant mortality rate among African-American newborns Posted 10:14 pm, May 17, 2018, by Madeline Anderson , Updated at 10:35PM, May 17, 2018 … Federal, state, and local leaders from various states can also share lessons learned through the Alliance for Innovation in Maternal Health and the Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Networks addressing maternal and infant health. Infant Mortality Fact Sheet October 2, 2018 What is Infant Mortality? See Haroon Siddique “UK lobbies for trans rights in UN treaty but allows term ‘pregnant women,’”, The authors acknowledge that other groups, particularly Native American women, also experience elevated rates of maternal and infant death. For example, women of color are less likely to have access to vital reproductive health services including family planning; abortion; and screenings for sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer, when compared with non-Hispanic white women.56 Studies also show that African American women receive lower-quality health care generally, which results in higher risk for mortality across the life span for this population.57 This contributes to racial disparities in pregnancy-related risk factors—such as hypertension, anemia, gestational diabetes, and obesity58—and other conditions such as heart disease, HIV, AIDS, and cancer.59 Relatedly, African American infants receive lower-quality care than non-Hispanic white infants within the same neonatal intensive care units.60, Another problem is inadequate bias training among the health care workforce. The Native American infant death rate is comparible to the African American rate; the racial disparity between Native Americans and whites is about the same as African Americans (2.6 Native American deaths for every white infant … (791.9/100,000) . Pre-term birth and low birth weight are two of the greatest risk factors for infant mortality. Finally, note that America Health Rankings puts the overall infant mortality rate for Ohio at 7 per 1000 live births, suggesting that blacks have an infant mortality rate of only two times that of the general population. Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, Infant Mortality Summit 2018: Saving Babies Together Meeting the Equity Challenge 12/12/2018, 12/12/2018 7:00:00 AM - 12/12/2018 4:45:00 PM, The latest Ohio data shows that there is great progress to be made in reducing infant … Table 5. See Marian F. MacDorman and others, “Is the United States Maternal Mortality Rate Increasing? Indeed, one study showed that after controlling for income; gestational age; and maternal age and health status, the odds of dying from pregnancy or delivery complications were almost three times higher for African American women than they were for non-Hispanic white women.21 Relatedly, another analysis, controlling for the same factors, showed that college-educated African American women were almost three times more likely to lose their infants than their similarly educated non-Hispanic white peers.22, Early and adequate prenatal care is designed to promote healthy pregnancies and reduce maternal and infant mortality through maternal health screening, parent education, and counseling on healthy behaviors.23 Although research shows that a lower percentage of African American women have access to prenatal care than do non-Hispanic white women, differences in prenatal care access fail to explain any racial disparities in maternal and infant mortality.24 In fact, African American women who initiated prenatal care in the first trimester still had higher rates of infant mortality than non-Hispanic white women with late or no prenatal care.25. Infant mortality is the death of an infant before his or her first birthday. For example, advocacy movements such as the Black Mamas Matter Alliance63 and the National Birth Equity Collaborative64 are creating greater public awareness through campaigns for racial and reproductive justice. Audrey F. Saftlas, Lisa M. Koonin, Hani K. Atrash, “Racial Disparity in Pregnancy-related Mortality Associated with Livebirth: Can Established Risk Factors Explain It?”, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Pregnancy Complications,” available at, Martin and Montagne, “Nothing Protects Black Women From Dying in Pregnancy and Childbirth”; Cynthia Prather and others, “The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women,”, Jochen Profit and others, “Racial/Ethnic Disparity in NICU Quality of Care Delivery,”, Martin and Montagne, “Nothing Protects Black Women From Dying in Pregnancy and Childbirth.”, Black Mamas Matter Alliance, “Homepage,” available at, National Birth Equity Collaborative, “Homepage,” available at, California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative, “Homepage,” available at, North Carolina Medical Assistance Health and Human Services, “Pregnancy Medical Home,” available at, Health Resources and Services Administration, “Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Networks (CoIINs),” available at, Postpartum Support International, “Legislation,” available at. In 2017, African American mothers were 2.3 times more likely than non-Hispanic white mothers to receive late or no prenatal care. The toll of infant mortality on a community is measured using the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). Protecting the health of mothers and infants is a critical measure of a country’s development. National Vital Statistics Reports. An alternative approach proposed by Michael Lu and Neal Halfon posits that racial disparities reflect altogether different developmental trajectories.38 That is, the social and economic forces of institutional racism set African American and non-Hispanic white women on distinct life tracks, with long-term consequences for their health and the health of their future children. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/12/30/574514217/erica-garner-who-became-an-activist-after-her-fathers-death-dies, https://www.bustle.com/p/after-erica-garners-death-we-need-to-talk-about-how-maternal-mortality-affects-black-women-7739678, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/23/uk-lobbies-for-trans-rights-in-un-treaty-but-allows-contentious-pregnant-women-term, https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pmss.html, https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-relatedmortality.htm, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db74.pdf, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUUJIG0-SlA, https://www.vogue.com/article/serena-williams-vogue-cover-interview-february-2018, https://www.propublica.org/article/nothing-protects-black-women-from-dying-in-pregnancy-and-childbirth, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710797, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.MMRT?end=2015&start=1990&year_high_desc=false, https://www.vox.com/health-care/2018/1/8/16863656/childhood-mortality-united-states, http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?queryid=30116#, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr50/nvsr50_15.pdf, https://www.hrsa.gov/sites/default/files/ourstories/mchb75th/mchb75maternalmortality.pdf, https://www.npr.org/2017/05/12/527806002/focus-on-infants-during-childbirth-leaves-u-s-moms-in-danger, https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=23, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2015/010.pdf, http://www.annalsofepidemiology.org/article/S1047-2797(03)00128-5/abstract, https://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/youre-pregnant-now-what/prenatal-care-and-tests, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr57/nvsr57_07.pdf, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr50/nvsr50_04.pdf, http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/premature-birth/basics/risk-factors/con-20020050, http://adc.bmj.com/content/archdischild/83/3/203.full.pdf, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12004983, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10647799, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3082136/, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6001.pdf, https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/data/maternal-morbidity-report-08-12.pdf, http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/2007/09000/Extreme_Obesity_and_Risk_of_Stillbirth_Among_Black.4.aspx, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515526, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/nia-hamm/depression-african-american-women_b_5836320.html, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8942508, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/reports/2017/11/17/443051/suffering-in-silence/, https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/06/17/192730233/for-people-of-color-a-housing-market-partially-hidden-from-view, https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/alixwinter/files/sampson_winter_2016.pdf, https://ocrdata.ed.gov/Downloads/CRDC-Early-Childhood-Education-Snapshot.pdf, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/news/2017/09/28/439953/economics-of-misogyny/, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/reports/2016/10/03/145208/the-missing-conversation-about-work-and-family/, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/05/72-percent-blackfatherhood_n_5648759.html, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3740218/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470581/, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/CBI-infant-health, http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.76.12.1416, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3881604/, https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=98, https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s40985-016-0025-4.pdf, https://www.reproductiverights.org/node/861, https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/152/5/413/149445, https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregcomplications.htm, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939479/, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/08/24/peds.2017-0918, https://dma.ncdhhs.gov/providers/programs-services/family-planning-and-maternity/pregnancy-medical-home, https://mchb.hrsa.gov/maternal-child-health-initiatives/collaborative-improvement-innovation-networks-coiins, https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/senate-bill/1112/text, http://www.postpartum.net/professionals/legislation/, gro.ssergorpnacirema@regrebeesc, gro.ssergorpnacirema@krofloowb, STATEMENT: President Biden’s Executive Actions Are a Necessary and Welcome First Step in Building a More Fair, Humane, and Workable Immigration System, CAP’s Tom Jawetz says, STATEMENT: CAP’s Maggie Siddiqi Praises Executive Order To End Muslim Ban and Uphold Religious Freedom, STATEMENT: CAP’s John Podesta, Christy Goldfuss Welcome President Biden’s Ambitious Day-One Climate Actions, Substandard housing and housing instability, Poor access to quality, whole foods and adequate nutrition, Poor access to quality, comprehensive health care services, Poor employment opportunities, including lack of access to flexible scheduling and livable wages. The infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau ranks third in Africa with an approximate rate of 86 out of ,1000 live births. Current health status, health history, stress, and experiences of racism may contribute to maternal and infant mortality when coupled with lower-quality prenatal care. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_08-508.pdf [987.68KB], Source: CDC 2019. Supporting research that aims to better understand maternal risk factors—much like the Mom’s Opportunity to Access Health, Education, Research, and Support for Postpartum Depression Act—will be important for future policy efforts.69 Furthermore, centering the lived experiences of African American women and the effects of those experiences on pregnancy-related outcomes are essential in order to fill gaps in research and develop sustainable policy and program solutions that help curb disparities in maternal and infant mortality. The United States has a dismal track record when it comes to maternal and infant mortality. Garner, who entered the public eye in 2014 after a police officer choked her father to death, had an enlarged heart.1 The stress of pregnancy—and perhaps the strain of her father’s death2—further weakened it. 1 Center for American Progress | Mass Incarceration, Stress, and Black Infant Mortality Mass Incarceration, Stress, and Black Infant Mortality A Case Study in Structural Racism By Connor Maxwell and Danyelle SolomonJune 5, 2018 Infant mortality and mass incarceration are major issues affecting the black community. Although U.S. mortality rates do not compare favorably with those of other developed countries, disaggregating data by maternal race reveals a different picture. Table 2. Governor Cooper’s Early Childhood Action Plan set a goal for reducing the … Controlling for socioeconomic status, researchers found that African American women had the highest allostatic load scores in a sample of non-Hispanic white and African American men and women.47 This finding is also supported by other research showing that the health of African American women deteriorates more rapidly than that of non-Hispanic white women during the reproductive years.48 During pregnancy, chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol lead to immune suppression, increasing women’s risk of perinatal infections and leading to life-threatening pregnancy complications. The Office of Health Data and Research, through a variety of research methods, seeks to describe the pattern of infant mortality, delineate contributing factors, and identify strategies for reducing Mississippi's infant mortality rate. The Mahoning County Pathways HUB (the HUB) is working to reduce this disparity. The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths for every 1,000 live births. A few states, including California65 and North Carolina,66 have developed health care and research collaborative groups to improve health outcomes for women and infants. African Americans had over twice the sudden infant death syndrome mortality rate as non-Hispanic whites, in 2017. When women experience acute and chronic life stressors during pregnancy, maternal mental health issues can arise.33 Yet differences in maternal mental health are also not enough to explain the gap in birth outcomes, as African American women have not consistently reported higher levels of stress during pregnancy.34 However, women of color are not typically aware of mental health symptoms experienced during pregnancy and in the postpartum period.35 This is due to a lack of knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms associated with mental health challenges. The overall infant mortality rate across the U.S. is 5.7 out of every 1,000 live births. The overall infant mortality rate in 2013 was 7.2 deaths per 1000 live births, but for Black infants, the rate … Governor Cooper’s Early Childhood Action Plan set a goal for reducing the statewide infant mortality … However, these changes only partly explain the growing number of recorded maternal deaths in the last decades. In 2018, the Mahoning County white infant mortality rate was 1.9 while the black infant mortality rate was 14.7. However, as disparities between non-Hispanic white and African American women are largest and most consistent, the authors focus on this disparity. As of 2017, the infant mortality rate in Maryland was 6.5/1,000, representing no progress from the 2012 goal. Produce data sets that include information on social and environmental risk factors for women and infants of color. “For African-American women, these rates are two times higher than the rates for non-Hispa… The MMR is the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births annually, and the IMR is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births annually. On maternal mortality, the stats are 20.3-per-100000 for the whole population vs 46-per-100000 for blacks. For example, Native American and Alaska Native women are about 1.5 times as likely to lose an infant before its first birthday. The overall rate in 2019 (not counting December) was 7.75 per 1,000 live births, compared to 8.65 in 2018. There was a slight decline in Ohio's infant mortality rate from 7.4 per 1,000 live births in 2016 to 7.2 in 2017. The infant mortality rate for Africa in 2019 was 46.281 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.47% decline from 2018. Electronic address: Lcamankwaa@bellsouth.net. By most accounts, however, the United States holds the worst records for maternal and infant mortality in the developed world. Racism’s harmful effects must be dissected to adequately address racial disparities in infant and maternal health. And once racism is taken into account, public policy and program solutions must be developed to dismantle it—spurring a lasting impact on health outcomes. The infant mortality rate for South Africa in 2019 was 26.505 deaths per 1000 live births, a 2.69% decline from 2018. “African-American women have disproportionately high rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight and infant mortality,” Parker Dominguez said. women.31 A related study comparing infant mortality rates of obese African American and non-Hispanic white mothers showed that non-Hispanic white women experienced uniformly lower risk.32 &us, higher rates of obesity among African American women do not explain the racial disparity in infant or maternal mortality. Obesity—which is associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia29—predicts both maternal and infant mortality and is more prevalent among African American women.30 Yet a recent study from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene showed that African American women of normal weight were still at higher risk of dying in the perinatal period than non-African American obese women.31 A related study comparing infant mortality rates of obese African American and non-Hispanic white mothers showed that non-Hispanic white women experienced uniformly lower risk.32 Thus, higher rates of obesity among African American women do not explain the racial disparity in infant or maternal mortality. Table 13. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_08-508.pdf. Guinea-Bissau - 86 per 1,000. It reviews empirical literature on maternal and infant mortality, concluding that the greater prevalence of maternal health risk factors among African American women cannot account entirely for their higher mortality rates. Conduct research that substantiates the connections between a mother’s health before, during, and between pregnancies as well as that of her child across the life course. The infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau ranks third in Africa with an approximate rate of 86 out of ,1000 live births. Black infants in America are now more than twice as likely to die as white infants — 11.3 per 1,000 black babies, compared with 4.9 per 1,000 white … For immediate release: January 10, 2018 (18-005) Contact: Dave Johnson, Strategic Communications Office 360-545-2944 WA infant mortality rate below U.S. rate, disparities still remain. Purpose: A Black infant dies every 13 hours in the state of Indiana. A recent analysis 1 using data from 2008-2016 explored changes in Denver’s African American infant mortality rate. Conduct comprehensive, nationwide data collection on maternal deaths and complications—with data disaggregated by race, geography, and socioeconomic status. These challenges have been linked to depression among this population.37. Served 364 African-American women between the ages of 18-34, having zero preventable infant deaths and better-than-average rates of pre-term and low-birthweight deliveries. On December 30, 2017, she died.3, Although all deaths are tragic, Erica Garner’s death illuminates a devastating problem in the United States: African American mothers are dying at three to four times the rate of non-Hispanic white mothers,4 and infants born to African American mothers are dying at twice the rate as infants born to non-Hispanic white mothers.5 These two trends hold true across education levels and socioeconomic status.6 Even tennis star Serena Williams—a wealthy and remarkably powerful woman—nearly died from pregnancy-related complications.7. In 2018 the white infant mortality rate was 4.5 per 1,000 live births while the black rate was 15.1 per 1,000 live births. Births: Final Data for 2017 National Vital Statistics Reports. The ratio between African-American and white infant mortality rates (IMR) in 2013 was 2.1 while the ratio in 2018 was 1.9 which indicates an almost 10% decrease in the ratio between races. Shortly after giving birth to her son in August 2017, 27-year-old activist and Black Lives Matter icon Erica Garner suffered her first heart attack. The infant mortality rate for black women's babies was 10.97 in 2017 – more than twice the rates among white, Asian and Hispanic women, who saw rates of … S. Winter, “The Racial Ecology of Lead Poisoning: Toxic Inequality in Chicago Neighborhoods, 1995–2013,” (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2016), available at, Kate Bahn, “Economics of Misogyny,” Center for American Progress, September 28, 2017, available at, Jocelyn Frye, “The Missing Conversation About Work and Family: Unique Challenges Facing Women of Color” (Washington: Center for American Progress, 2016), available at, Jessica Dickerson, “’72 Percent’ Documentary Confronts the Black Community’s Single-Parent ‘Epidemic,’” HuffPost, August 5, 2014, available at, Sonja Entringer, “Impact of stress and stress physiology during pregnancy on child metabolic function and obesity risk,”, Arline T. Geronimus and others, “‘Weathering’ and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States,”, Tiffany L. Green, “Black and Immigrant: Exploring the Effects of Ethnicity and Foreign-Born Status on Infant Health” (Washington: Migration Policy Institute, 2012), available at available at, Arline T. Geronimus, “The effects of race, residence, and prenatal care on the relationship of maternal age to neonatal mortality,”, Mikko Myrskyla and Andrew Fenelon, “Maternal Age and Offspring Adult Health: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study,”, Geronimus and others, “‘Weathering’ and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States.”, Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, “Fast Facts, Enrollment,” available at, Allison Shertzer and Randall P. Walsh, “Racial Sorting and the Emergence of Segregation in American Cities.” Working Paper 22077 (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2017), available at, Allan S. Noonan, Hector Eduardo Velasco-Mondragon, and Fernando A. Wagner, “Improving the health of African Americans in the USA: an overdue opportunity for social justice,”, Center for Reproductive Rights, “Addressing Disparities in Reproductive and Sexual Health Care in the U.S.,” available at. The infant mortality rate for According to research conducted by Parker Dominguez, Caucasian and Asian women have the best pregnancy outcomes in the U.S., followed by Latinas, Native Americans and finally, African Americans. infant mortality has been a longstanding goal in the United States. Infant mortality rates may be explained by variations in maternal characteristics, behaviors and Source: CDC 2019. African American infants are 3.8 times as likely to die from complications related to low birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. Because black women experience the highest infant mortality rates among any racial or ethnic group in the United States, the authors stress that to decrease the IMR, long-standing factors that promote these disparities must be addressed directly. Black-White Infant Mortality Gap Report March 2018 The infant mortality rate in Oklahoma is 6.9, the fifth-highest in the United States . Disentangling trends from measurement issues,”, Nina Martin and Renee Montage, “Focus On Infants During Childbirth Leaves U.S. Moms In Danger,” NPR, May 12, 2017, available at, Marian F. MacDorman and T.J. Mathews, “Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Significant disparity in outcomes betweenBlack and W hite infants continue. The African American (AA) mortality rate for SCC was 33% higher than the AA mortality rate for the U.S. (1,365.6 and 1,026.5/100,000 respectively). 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