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, After graduating from Yale College (B.A., 1909) and Wadham College, Oxford (B.A., Jurisprudence, 1911; M.A., 1913), and earning a Ph.D. in political science from Columbia University, Moses became attracted to New York City reform politics. This helped create the new Long Island State Park Commission and the State Council of Parks. After the World's Fair debacle, New York City mayor John Lindsay, along with Governor Nelson Rockefeller, sought to direct toll revenues from the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority's (TBTA) bridges and tunnels to cover deficits in the city's then financially ailing agencies, including the subway system. Displaying a strong command of law as well as matters of engineering, Moses became known for his skill in drafting legislation, and was called "the best bill drafter in Albany". And that causes us to look at our infrastructure," said Jackson.  However, Caro also points out that Moses demonstrated racist tendencies. The fact that the fair was not sanctioned by the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE), the worldwide body supervising such events, would be devastating to the success of the event. “Robert Moses, the construction of the Cross-Bronx Expressway and its impact on the Bronx” This likely accelerated the economic turmoil known as the burning of the Bronx (Figure 2), whereby landlords burned down South Bronx apartments for profit and left much of the Bronx in ruin. According to Columbia University architectural historian Hilary Ballon and assorted colleagues, Moses deserves better than his reputation as a destroyer.  Moses' father was a successful department store owner and real estate speculator in New Haven. Vivian Vázquez, who grew up in South Bronx in the ‘70s, explains that “What people learn on the outside is that the people in the Bronx burnt it; that it was us who destroyed our community” (Ricciulli 2019). His other projects included the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and Staten Island Expressway, which together constituted most of Interstate 278; the Cross-Bronx Expressway; many New York State parkways; and other highways. The … (Max Ulrich/City of New York-Parks & Recreation Photo Archive) Moses could have directed TBTA to go to court against the action, but having been promised a role in the merged authority, Moses declined to challenge the merger. The highway had been unpopular since infamous New York “master builder” Robert Moses proposed steamrolling swaths of neighborhoods to build the Cross Bronx in the 1940s. The massive trench created during construction (Figure 1) is the result of the destruction of Bronx homes. Displacement and eviction for development projects such as the Cross-Bronx were very common, particularly under the reign of Robert Moses.  Moses' mother was active in the settlement movement, with her own love of building. Robert Moses, instead of parting the Red Sea, he parted the Bronx with a six-lane highway and redlined my community. Vivian Vázquez, who grew up in South Bronx in the ‘70s, explains that “What people learn on the outside is that the people in the Bronx burnt it; that it was us who destroyed our community” (Ricciulli 2019). It was the first fully divided limited access highway in the world. University of Arizona. , Moses had influence outside the New York area as well.  A "Brooklyn Battery Bridge" would have decimated Battery Park and physically encroached on the financial district, and for this reason, the bridge was opposed by the Regional Plan Association, historical preservationists, Wall Street financial interests, property owners, various high society people, construction unions, the Manhattan borough president, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, and governor Herbert H.  Moses's highways in the first half of the 20th century were parkways—curving, landscaped "ribbon parks" that were intended to be pleasures to travel as well as "lungs for the city"—though the Post–World War II economic expansion and notion of the automotive city brought freeways, most notably in the form of the vast, federally funded Interstate Highway System network.  Caro wrote that close associates of Moses had claimed they could keep African Americans from using the Thomas Jefferson Pool, in the then-predominantly white East Harlem, by making the water too cold. A statue of Moses was erected next to the Village Hall in his long-time hometown, Babylon Village, New York, in 2003, as well as a bust on the Lincoln Center campus of Fordham University, although it has since been removed from display and is currently in storage. The New York TImes. View phone numbers, addresses, public records, background check reports and possible arrest records for Robert Moses in Bronx, NY. ", American urban planner and public official, Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge, Post-war influence of urban development and projects, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Presentation by Robert Caro on Robert Moses and urban development at the Brookings Institution, September 28, 1998, Robert Moses State Park – Thousand Islands, proposed expansion of the New York City Subway, Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation, "Robert Moses, Master Builder, is Dead at 92", "The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York by Robert Caro review – a landmark study", "New York City Parks Commissioners : NYC Parks", "Revisiting The 11 Pools Whose Gala Openings Defined 1936", "Feb. 4, 1974: Portland kills the Mount Hood Freeway", "Revising the Revisionists: Walter O'Malley, Robert Moses, and the End of the Brooklyn Dodgers", "Environmental and Urban Economics: Robert Moses: New York City's Master Builder? (Max Ulrich/City of New York-Parks & Recreation Photo Archive) 1929 In August 1929, Long Island State Park Commissioner Robert Moses opened Jones Beach State Park. According to Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York, Robert Moses is racist, the Cross-Bronx Expressway is racist, and environmental racism is a pre-existing condition in New York City. Robert Moses was considered the most “powerful modern builder of all time”. Language in its Authority's bond contracts and multi-year Commissioner appointments made it largely impervious to pressure from mayors and governors. explores the disconnect between the actuality of Bronx neighborhoods and how Moses presented them. The blasting commenced in ’48. Moses opposed this idea and fought to prevent it. Whitepages people search is the most trusted directory. One of these was the Parkside Houses, formerly eleven acres of granite outcropping in the north Bronx. Upon receiving criticism and protest from those in threat of displacement, Moses says in an interview, “New York has too many critics, we ought to get rid of some of them” (Burns 2001). Tenant Screening. By 1959, he had overseen construction of 28,000 apartment units on hundreds of acres of land. The Cross Bronx Expressway is known as one of the most congested roadways in all of the U.S. This was in apparent retaliation, based on specious claims that the proposed tunnel would undermine Castle Clinton's foundation. , Moses was heavily criticized in Robert Caro's 1974 award-winning biography, The Power Broker. It W8. Cross Bronx Expressway under construction (1957-59) via rimador.net. Other U.S. cities were doing the same thing as New York in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s; Boston, San Francisco, and Seattle, for instance, each built highways straight through their downtown areas. During the last years of his life, Moses concentrated on his lifelong love of swimming and was an active member of the Colonie Hill Health Club. He also clashed with the chief engineer of the project, Ole Singstad, who preferred a tunnel instead of a bridge. 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